Lengd verkefnis: 48 mánuðir. (1. jún 2019 - 31. maí 2023)
Evrópustyrkur: €6.315.865 (€626.250 veittur Háskóla Íslands)
Styrkur í samræmi við: H2020-EU.3.5.1. - Fighting and adapting to climate change
Verkefnastýring: Universidad de Valladolid, Spáni
Decision-makers in governments need to be able to make informed decisions about feasible and effective pathways towards a low-carbon society. The EU-funded LOCOMOTION project responds to this need. Building on the existing Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) developed in the EU-funded MEDEAS project, a number of substantive improvements are planned with respect to the state-of-the-art in energy-economy-environment modelling. These include several actions, such as the expansion of the geographical coverage and improving the IAMs by increasing the detail and precision of existing modules and adding new ones. The results of the project will be open source and available to scientists and modelling experts as open source software in Python with extensive technical documentation. Public decision-makers will benefit from user-friendly application for own analysis. Civil society will be able to use web interface and educational simulation game.
H2020-EU.3.5. - SOCIETAL CHALLENGES - Climate action, Environment, Resource Efficiency and Raw Materials
The specific objective is to achieve a resource- and water-efficient and climate change resilient economy and society, the protection and sustainable management of natural resources and ecosystems, and a sustainable supply and use of raw materials, in order to meet the needs of a growing global population within the sustainable limits of the planet's natural resources and ecosystems. Activities will contribute to increasing European competitiveness and raw materials security and to improving well being, whilst assuring environmental integrity, resilience and sustainability with the aim of keeping average global warming below 2 °C and enabling ecosystems and society to adapt to climate change and other environmental changes.
During the 20th century, the world increased both its fossil fuel use and the extraction of material resources by a factor of ten. This era of seemingly plentiful and cheap resources is coming to an end. Raw materials, water, air, biodiversity and terrestrial, aquatic and marine ecosystems are all under pressure. Many of the world's major ecosystems are being degraded, with up to 60 % of the services that they provide being used unsustainably. In the Union, some 16 tonnes of materials are used per person each year, of which 6 tonnes are wasted, with half going to landfill. The global demand for resources continues to increase with the growing population and rising aspirations, in particular of middle-income earners in emerging economies. Economic growth needs to be decoupled from resource use.
The average temperature of the Earth's surface has increased by about 0,8 °C over the past 100 years and is projected to increase by between 1,8 to 4 °C by the end of the 21st century (relative to the 1980-1999 average). The likely impacts on natural and human systems associated with these changes will challenge the planet and its ability to adapt, as well as threaten future economic development and the well being of humanity.
The growing impacts from climate change and environmental problems, such as ocean acidification, changes in ocean circulation, increase of seawater temperature, ice melting in the Arctic and decreased seawater salinity, land degradation and use, loss of soil fertility, water scarcity, droughts and floods, seismic and volcanic hazards, changes in spatial distribution of species, chemical pollution, over-exploitation of resources, and biodiversity loss, indicate that the planet is approaching its sustainability boundaries. For example, without improvements in efficiency across all sectors, including through innovative water systems, water demand is projected to overshoot supply by 40 % in 20 years time, which will lead to severe water stress and shortages. Forests are disappearing at an alarmingly high rate of 5 million hectares per year. Interactions between resources can cause systemic risks, with the depletion of one resource generating an irreversible tipping point for other resources and ecosystems. Based on current trends, the equivalent of more than two planet Earths will be needed by 2050 to support the growing global population.
The sustainable supply and resource-efficient management of raw materials, including their exploration, extraction, processing, re-use, recycling and substitution, is essential for the functioning of modern societies and their economies. European sectors, such as construction, chemicals, automotive, aerospace, machinery and equipment, which provide a total added value of some EUR 1,3 trillion and employment for approximately 30 million people, heavily depend on access to raw materials. However, the supply of raw materials to the Union is coming under increasing pressure. Furthermore, the Union is highly dependent on imports of strategically important raw materials, which are being affected at an alarming rate by market distortions.
Moreover, the Union still has valuable mineral deposits, whose exploration, extraction and processing is limited by a lack of adequate technologies, by inadequate waste cycle management and by lack of investment, and hampered by increased global competition. Given the importance of raw materials for European competitiveness, for the economy and for their application in innovative products, the sustainable supply and resource-efficient management of raw materials is a vital priority for the Union.
The ability of the economy to adapt and become more climate change resilient and resource-efficient and at the same time to remain competitive depends on high levels of eco-innovation, of a societal, economic, organisational and technological nature. With the global market for eco-innovation worth around EUR 1 trillion per year and expected to triple by 2030, eco-innovation represents a major opportunity to boost competitiveness and job creation in European economies.
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